Lewes History Group: Bulletin 125, December 2020

Please note: this Bulletin is being put on the website one month after publication. If you would like to receive the Bulletin by email as soon as it is published, please contact the Membership Secretary about joining the Lewes History Group, and to renew your membership at the start of the calendar year.

  1. Next Meeting: 14 December 2020: Chris Horlock, ‘A Sussex Christmas’
  2. A.G.M.
  3. A Gold Coin from the reign of Ethelred the Unready
  4. An Inner Relief Road for Lewes?
  5. John Hoggesflesh’s Trials
  6. The Sussex Arms, Fisher Street
  7. A Window into the Past: The Photography of Ellis Kelsey (by Kevin Gordon)
  8. Smocks for Workhouse Inmates
  9. Lewes Councillor admires Hitler
  10. A.G.M. Agenda & Reports

 

  1. Next Meeting   7.30 p.m. Monday 14 December
    Chris Horlock    A Sussex Christmas

The Lewes History Group’s December Zoom talk by local historian Chris Horlock will reveal how the people of Sussex celebrated Christmas in the past. Even those who know Sussex well will discover some new and surprising things in his talk.

Many of the customs of the traditional twelve days of Christmas are detailed, including putting up the decorations, bringing in the yule log, preparing the Christmas day feast, plus the curious ‘Mummer’s Play’ entertainment. There’s a Christmas tale or two along the way, including a mysterious incident during the great snowstorm of 1881, plus how in 1939 the snow at Burwash was not the usual colour!

Chris Horlock is an expert on Sussex folklore and folk history, and a collector of old photographs. He writes regularly for Sussex Life, has published a number of books and is an accomplished speaker.

This meeting will again be a Zoom webinar, and to attend you must register in advance. You will then be able to join the meeting from 7.20 pm. You can register from the this link, or via the usual email invitation.

One event I shall personally miss is our Christmas mulled wine and mince pies. Let us all pray 2021 will be a better year.

 

  1. A.G.M.

Our December meeting will be followed, after a 5 minute gap, by our A.G.M.

You will need to log in separately for the A.G.M. You can join directly via the link that will be sent to members in a separate email invitation.

For the A.G.M. Agenda and Reports please see item 10 below.

 

  1. A Gold Coin from the reign of Ethelred the Unready

Gold coin produced in Lewes 978-1013
© Trustees of the British Museum

This gold coin from the reign of Ethelred II (reigned 978-1013) was produced by the Lewes moneyer Leofwine, using the same die that he used for his silver pennies. The coin is in the British Museum collection, reference 978/1016. This image of the coin was posted by Stephen Hutchings on the Lewes Past website.

 

  1. An Inner Relief Road for Lewes?

Many Lewes residents will remember the ill-fated 1960s County Council proposal for an ‘Inner Relief Road’ that, in the end, gave us a second bridge across the River Ouse at Phoenix Causeway but was thankfully mainly cancelled.

The 23 August 1827 Brighton Gazette reports a well-attended meeting at the County Hall, Lewes, at which the Trustees of the ‘Brighton, Lewes, Witch Cross & Burwash’ turnpike trusts determined to petition Parliament for a Bill to allow the creation of a new turnpike road starting from the North Street House of Correction and then proceeding in a direct line across the brooks to South Malling. They noted that the new river crossing proposed would shorten the distance for those travelling to London and the north-eastern parts of Sussex, and would avoid the steep pull up Malling Hill. Among the commissioners present were Sir Charles Blunt, Sir George Shiffner, Sir Henry Blackman and his son Henry Blackman, Thomas Read Kemp, William Courthope Mabbott, George Grantham and many others. Both the main political parties of the day were well represented. However, the newspaper understood that the inhabitants of the Cliffe, whose business premises would be by-passed, intended to oppose the bill.

Nothing came of this particular initiative, but after 1830 the steepest part of the pull up Malling Hill was avoided by a new turnpike route that went round via Earwig Corner. This less ambitious road improvement still depended on the existing bridge across the river, and travelled along the bottleneck of Cliffe High Street. It was constructed in the winter of 1829/30 by the Ringmer parish labour gang. This was mainly comprised of unemployed farm labourers, who were equipped only with picks, shovels and wheelbarrows, but they completed the job in a matter of weeks.

 

  1. John Hoggesflesh’s Trials

Jeremy Goring’s book ‘Burn Holy Fire: Religion in Lewes since the Reformation’ reports on the trials and tribulations of Lewes resident John Hoggesflesh, accused in 1534 of Lollard beliefs, such as denying that the Holy Sacrament became the body and blood of Christ during the Mass, that prayers were best routed through Saints, or that the clergy were necessary intermediaries between man and God. These beliefs went back to those developed by John Wycliffe (c.1320s-1384), an Oxford professor whose translation of the Vulgate (Latin) bible into Middle-English was completed in 1382, and drew the attention of those who spoke only English to the many discrepancies between actual biblical teaching and the contemporary practices of the medieval church.

Wycliffe’s conclusion that Christians should rely on the bible rather than the teachings of the pope and the Catholic clergy earned him the enmity of the authorities. His emphasis on the biblical teachings about service and poverty were especially unpopular with the wealthy clerics of the day. Worse they were felt dangerous to good social order, and the 1381 Peasants’ Revolt was blamed on them, although Wycliffe himself disapproved of its violence. Wycliffe’s died in 1384, and his beliefs were declared heretical, but his followers, the Lollards, continued as a persecuted minority until the 16th century, and were active in Sussex. As Wycliffe’s translation was completed many years before the invention of the printing press, all copies of his English bible had to be made by hand. Possession of such an English translation of the scriptures was made a capital offence.

John Hoggesflesh, lived in the parish of St Mary Westout, Lewes, and was a keen reader of the Bible. In October 1534 he was charged with refusing to ‘give any honour or worship’ to the Blessed Virgin and with affirming that ‘it is not necessary to be confessed to a priest’. After a preliminary hearing in Lewes he was despatched to Chichester, where he was arraigned before a court composed of the diocesan chancellor, the dean, two canons, the mayor of the city and other dignitaries. After a lengthy trial, in which he defended his position vigorously with numerous biblical texts, his judges were perplexed. Uncertain about the seriousness of his errors, they referred the case to Archbishop Cranmer, who in turn referred it to the Duke of Norfolk, who in his turn referred it to the King in his new capacity of Supreme Head of the Church in England.

At this precise date the Reformation was causing political turmoil. With a powerful King breaking from the Roman Catholic church, there was no safe consensus view for the judges to hold about John Hoggesflesh’s arguments. Many English people were influenced by the European Protestant scholarship of Erasmus and Martin Luther, in many respects similar to Wycliffe’s. These included such powerful national figures as Thomas Cromwell and the Queen Ann Boleyn. The Oxford scholar William Tyndale (c.1494-1536) had completed his translations of the Hebrew and Greek testaments but, failing to get permission to print and publish them in England, he had fled to Protestant northern Europe. Copies of his printed work were regularly smuggled into England from 1526 onwards. The King himself had broken with the pope, but his personal views were not clear – some felt he rejected the authority the pope claimed over him rather than actual Catholic teaching.

In due course Henry VIII confirmed that Hoggesflesh’s opinions were erroneous and the Bishop of Chichester was accordingly instructed to have him condemned. Eventually this ‘famous heretic’ was forced to recant his ‘detestable opinions’, do public penance in the cathedral and read out a declaration of his errors in the market places of Chichester, Midhurst, and Lewes. This was a light punishment for the time when compared with some of his contemporaries with similar views, who were burnt for similar offences. Tyndale himself was judicially strangled in 1536, and his body then burnt when he fell into the hands of the Emperor Charles V.

Jeremy Goring wondered how Hoggesflesh acquired his impressive knowledge of the scripture. The first legal English bible (translated by Miles Coverdale) was not published until 1535. It first appeared in Lewes in 1538, when the churchwardens of St Andrew’s bought a Great Bible to be set up (chained) in their church for the use of parishioners. Did John Hoggesflesh have access to a smuggled copy of Tyndale’s New Testament, or had he perhaps an old manuscript copy of Wycliffe’s bible?

Sources: Valerie Offord, editorial in the Tyndale Society Journal vol.27 (2004).

 

  1. The Sussex Arms, Fisher Street

When Kay Smallman posted a note on the Lewes Past website about her grandfather William Hayden, landlord of the Sussex Arms, 9 Fisher Street, c.1900, Mick Symes Sussex Arms, Fisher Street, Lewesresponded with this photograph and the names of some of the keepers of the beershop as below, obtained from local directories and censuses. He added that the house was demolished about 1930.

Licensees:
James Pettit, noted 1867-1891 (aged 65 in 1891)
William Hayden, noted 1899-1905 (aged 58 in 1901)
H. Hayden, noted in 1910
Mrs Hilda Lyon, noted in 1913
William Hathaway, noted in 1918

 

James Pettit (1826-1922) was a farm labourer’s son, born in Falmer. In 1851 he was a young farm labourer at Itford Hill, Beddingham, newly married to a 17 year old wife. By 1861 he was a carter, living at 1 Garden Cottage, Cliffe, with his wife and two sons. His wife died aged 35 in 1868, leaving him with 4 children, one just a toddler, In the following year he remarried a widow with another young child. In 1871 he was at the Sussex Arms, now described as a beer retailer, with his second wife and their 5 children, but his second wife died in 1877, aged 41. He continued at the Sussex Arms in 1881, with his teenage daughter as his housekeeper. Although living at the Sussex Arms he owned a freehold house in South Street, Cliffe, which gave him a vote in Cliffe as a property owner. The Cliffe electoral registers show that he remained at the Sussex Arms until 1894, but by 1895 he had retired to 10 Toronto Terrace. He was at 10 Toronto Terrace in the 1901 and 1911 censuses, living on his own means with just a much younger housekeeper, and he died there in 1922 at the age of 96, leaving an estate valued by the house agent Alfred Wycherley, his executor, at just over £1,500. In the 1911 census he volunteered the information that he had had 4 children, of whom only one was still living.

William Hayden (1842-1908) was born in Horley, Surrey, c.1843. His father was a railway clerk there, and in his teens William trained as a grocer and draper. In the 1881 & 1891 censuses William Hayden was a railway station inspector (aged 38 & 48) living at 13 Friars Walk. He had a wife and at least 8 children. By 1891 two of the older boys had joined the railway as clerks, while another was a clerk at the Waterworks. His older children, born c.1869-1875, were born in Havant, Hampshire, where in the 1871 census William was a railway porter, but his children born from 1877 onwards were all born in Lewes.

He was still at the Sussex Arms when he died on 4 September 1908, and probate of his £150 estate was granted to the son who had been the waterworks clerk, but was by 1908 a butler. Just a few weeks after William Hayden’s death his daughter Hylda, a 17 year old barmaid in 1901, married Frederick John Lyon, a Londoner. In the 1911 census Frederick & Hylda Lyon were running the 5-room beerhouse. By 1920 they had moved to Brighton. They were still in Brighton at the start of World War II, with Frederick a printer and Hylda a housewife.

 

  1. A Window into the Past: The Photography of Ellis Kelsey (by Kevin Gordon)

Lewes is lucky to have had a talented photographer in Edward Reeves. His archive of  thousands of glass-plates enable us to look through a window into the past. Reeves was a professional photographer but there were also talented amateur photographers nearby. Tucked away in the archives of Seaford Museum are a collection of about 2,500 photographs by Ellis Kelsey and, like the Reeves Collection, many of them are on glass-plates.

Ellis Kelsey was born in Richmond, Surrey in 1866.  His father was a tailor and, as he supplied livery to the Royal Household, the business became quite successful.  After his father retired, the family moved to a purpose built house in Upper Avenue, Eastbourne. Ellis and his sister Edith were both musicians and the house included a large music room with a huge pipe-organ and pianos.

Ellis Kelsey, Kelsey family's Music Room
Ellis Kelsey and his family’s Music Room

Kelsey and his sister lived with their parents for most of their adult lives and Ellis was able to spend a considerable sum on his hobby of photography. His photographs date from about 1890 and are clear and well-taken. Unlike Reeves, Kelsey was brave with photographic experimentation.  He took many photographs in low light and often at night. He also enjoyed taking pictures in poor weather conditions including many views taken in the rain or after heavy snow. He was not averse to climbing the Downs to take photos of agricultural scenes and even took some photographs of the Sussex coast from boats. Kelsey experimented with early colour photography and many of his pictures are stereo views which appeared to be 3-D when put into a special viewer. I was excited to see rare photographs of Langney Fort and Tower 68 (the only inland Martello Tower) near Eastbourne. The family went on regular holidays and there are many shots of the Swiss mountains and the Italian lakes as well as Devon and the Isle of Wight.

Many of the photographs have an artistic feel about them and indeed, between 1899 and 1914 Kelsey submitted nearly 100 photographs to the Royal Photographic Society Annual Exhibitions. Not surprisingly many of them won prizes. Kelsey lectured about photography and gave ‘Magic Lantern’ slideshows.  He spoke to the Lewes Photographic Society on a number of occasions, the first time in January 1899. He regularly submitted his photos to the Lewes Photographic Society Annual Exhibition (which was usually held at the Corn Exchange). The Sussex Express of 26 March 1914 recounts “The members of the Lewes Photographic Society held an interesting meeting in the Committee Room of Lewes Town Hall on Wednesday. Mr Kelsey spoke of the Paget Process (colour photography). Several beautifully coloured slides of local spots were thrown onto a sheet.” A hearty vote of thanks was given to Mr Kelsey.

Sadly, most of the Kelsey’s photographs in the Seaford Museum’s collection are unidentified and undated but it has been fun during the lockdown trying to discover where they were taken. I have identified several that were taken in Lewes. None of them are dated.

Ellis Kelsey married in 1931 at the age of 64 and moved to Seaford with his wife and sister. He died eight years later and is buried at Seaford Cemetery. Although not as famous as Edward Reeves, Ellis Kelsey deserves to be remembered as a talented Sussex photographer.

View down Gundreda Road, Lewes
View down Gundreda Road towards Prince Edward’s Road

De Warrenne, Prince Edwards and Gundreda Roads junction, Lewes
Junction of De Warrenne Road (road sign) with Prince Edward’s Road and Gundreda Road, looking up Gundreda Road

View taken in the Wallands, Lewes
Unidentified view that appears to have been taken in the Wallands, Lewes, with the Coombe and Cuilfail on the Downs in the distance

 

  1. Smocks for Workhouse Inmates

At the meeting of the Lewes Union Guardians held on Friday 27 November 1913 the Master of the Union Workhouse at East Chiltington, where Lewes paupers were then housed, requested permission to purchase 24 overcoats for use by the old men of the workhouse when they were allowed out on leave. There were very few able bodied men, and the overcoats were not intended for them. When in the house the old men were kept fairly warm, but when they got their day’s leave they had no overcoats to wear, so they caught colds, lumbago and other complaints. The matron thought it would be nice for them to have overcoats.

One guardian suggested that 12 overcoats would be sufficient, as they would not need one each. Another asked about the cost of the overcoats, and when they were told 15 shillings each another guardian commented that he didn’t think that was enough: “They would not look any better than some of the ratepayers”.

The chairman (Mr H. Scarlett) then suggested that smock frocks be purchased instead of overcoats – it was surprising how warm they were. The Rev F.S. Sclater thought this a very good idea, as they were warm and they would wash. Mr C. Morrish protested that the smocks would label the old men as inmates of the workhouse, but others disagreed, as they were still worn in the country. Another guardian Mr J. Woolland, agreed that they were warm, but they were not fashionable, and proposed purchasing a dozen overcoats at between a pound and thirty shillings each. The Rev Sclater made the counter-proposal that a dozen smocks should be bought. The vote was tied, so the chairman’s casting vote was needed to decide the issue in favour of the smocks.

Mr Killick expressed the hope that the master would make it warm enough for the able-bodied inmates, by work rather than overcoats or smocks. The Master assured the Board of Guardians that he gave them plenty to do.

Source: 4 December 1913 Sussex Express

 

  1. Lewes Councillor admires Hitler

The 30 October 1936 Sussex Express carried the following article, under the headline above, and a sub-heading ‘Nazi movement as a new religion’.

“Councillor Miss Fowler-Tutt is a great admirer of Hitler. She told the Lewes Society for the Study of Religion so on Monday in the following words: When I saw Hitler I felt ‘Here is a man of great magnetic personality and with beautiful eyes –  the eyes of a mystic: and that his object was to have a little more social righteousness in his country’.  

Miss Fowler-Tutt spoke in the course of a discussion on the subject of ‘The present religious situation in Germany’ which was the title of an address by the Rev Francis Terry (minister of the Westgate Church). The meeting, which was the first of the session, was held in Westgate Church Hall. 

Miss Fowler-Tutt, referring to the German youth movement said: ‘Every one of those young Nazis worships Hitler and is being brought up to the highest ethical system that can be observed. This Nazi movement is a new kind of ethical religion. They say that every man should have a chance to live a decent life: they are beginning at the right end in seeing that the children are well fed and developed and that their intellectual life is not neglected. I think that in the next 20 years the Russians and the Germans will be the highest educated people in the world, and unless we think most seriously about developing our children both physically and mentally we shall be in a sad state in the years to come’. 

Mr Terry, in his address, referred to the Treaty of Versailles which, he said, made Germany admit, at the point of the pistol almost, that she was responsible for the Great War. ‘I think that the future of Europe depends largely on every nation sharing the guilt of the war’, he said. I think, possibly because I am an Englishman, that Germany had a far larger share than this country, but it did not have the whole share’. When the Nazis came into power the people felt that the national spirit was flowing into new channels and that as they had got a strong leader they could all work together. The bad thing about the movement, however, was that it tried to unite the people by giving them a common hatred, and that hatred was Judaism.  

The Rev J.M. Connell, who presided, hoped that more people would join the society, which was absolutely non-sectarian.”

 

  1. A.G.M. Agenda & Reports

A.G.M. Agenda

  • Acceptance of Annual Reports. Please see below.
  • Appointment of officers. The following officers have been nominated for 2021:
    Chair: Neil Merchant
    Treasurer: Ron Gordon
    Secretary: Krystyna Weinstein
    Executive committee: Sue Berry (Chair for evening meetings), Ann Holmes (Chair for EC meetings), John Kay (Bulletin editor), Jane Lee (Communications), Ian McClelland & Barbara Merchant (Website manager).
  • Membership subscription. The committee recommends that the annual subscription should be increased to £10 p.a. per member, but that admission to evening meetings should be free for members. Admissions charges for non-members should be increased to £4 per meeting. These changes are for 2021 only, to cover the increased costs of holding meetings by Zoom webinars, and will be further reviewed before the 2021 A.G.M.
  • Questions and comments.

Chair’s Report                                                                                    (by Neil Merchant)

This is my first annual report as chair of the Lewes History Group, having taken on the role earlier in the year.

The undoubted HIGH of this year has been the creation and publication of the book “The Pells of Lewes: Pool, Park, People, Places”. Congratulations are due to the whole project team for their research and writing, to the editors Ruth Thomson and Sarah Bayliss, sub-editor Krystyna Weinstein, and designer Mick Hawksworth for producing such a stunning final product.

The book has had some excellent reviews and has been extremely well-received, and the team’s talk in September – which launched our public monthly webinars – resulted in many positive emails and comments. As for sales, 650 copies sold out in a few weeks and the reprint is selling well.

Thanks are due to all our EC members for their commitment and contributions:

  • Sue Berry for leading our course program, chairing our talks and contributing her profound local history knowledge
  • Ron Gordon for managing our finances
  • Ann Holmes for chairing our EC meetings
  • John Kay for the monthly bulletins, for our monthly talks program, and for fielding most of the surprising number of enquiries we receive about local history and genealogy
  • Jane Lee for her unstinting PR work
  • Ian McClelland for managing our Street Stories research program, including the Pells book this year
  • Barbara Merchant for tirelessly maintaining both our website and social media presence, and our records
  • Krystyna Weinstein, our secretary

Thanks are also due to our various volunteers, though since March they’ve unfortunately had little opportunity to do so.

The undoubted LOW of the year has of course been Covid-19 and its effects on our ability to meet in person, hold courses or arrange visits. That said, moving our talks to Zoom webinars has proved extremely popular, and we thank everyone for their support and appreciation. Attendance at these webinars is equalling or exceeding that for our conventional events, and they are clearly valued during these difficult times.

I’ve emailed you already regarding our plans to sustain our activities in 2021 in the context of Covid-19’s consequences, and at the (Zoom) AGM on December 14th we’ll be asking you to vote on the proposed membership fee increase and the change in admission charges, as well as to elect our chair, treasurer and secretary.

Moving online inevitably incurs increased costs and, while we are financially secure at the moment, these changes will hopefully ensure that we stay that way for the future and can continue to meet our aims:

  • to make the history of Lewes more accessible
  • to promote projects that actively engage local people.

Thank you for your continued support.

Treasurer’s Report

The full Treasurer’s Report will be included in the January 2021 Bulletin, after the end of our financial year. The provisional report received by the last EC shows that despite the dramatic reductions in our meetings income in 2020 and the licence costs of holding large meetings via Zoom being significantly higher than our normal room hire charges, our 2020 income and 2020 expenditure will be close to matching each other. Overall our financial position remains strong. During 2020 the LHG made a significant upfront investment in our latest publication ‘The Pells of Lewes’, but its excellent sales mean that the book has been a financial as well as a critical success.

Membership Report                                                    (by Neil Merchant) 

Membership stands at 385, compared with 356 last year. New members have continued to join throughout the year, in small but steady numbers. We have 293 “Info Only” email contacts, almost exactly the same as last year (290).

As you’ll have read in recent emails, we are moving to an online membership system, Membermojo, for 2021. This partly because of the need to collect dues online, and partly because, with our increasing membership numbers, our homegrown system based on Excel and Gmail is no longer fit for purpose. Our plans are well advanced, and in December you’ll be hearing about it in more detail. Payment by cheque, BACS or SO will still be possible (and cash if we ever handle it again!) but we’re hoping you’ll adopt online payment.

LHG Website Report                                                      (by Barbara Merchant)

Website usage continued to rise to approximately 43,410 views in the 12 months to mid-November 2020, averaging 127 views per day (2019: 39,450 and 114). Figures recovered from a (Covid?) dip in March and then exceeded those for 2019.

Our website News items are copied to Facebook and Twitter, drawing followers to the website. A continuing effort to increase our Facebook presence to reach a new audience has maintained a rise in website views.

  • Twitter – 957 following @LewesHistory (2019: 870), +10.0%
  • Facebook – 922 following LewesHistoryGroup FB page (2019: 762), +21.0%
  • Website – 251 news items subscribers (2019: 208), +20.7%

The most popular website pages in 2020 were research resources, events, Bulletins, and Lewes Street Stories reports including the Pells book. 

Communications Report                                                       (by Jane Lee)

Clearly, the Covid pandemic has reduced the extent of PR & marketing in 2020. There were seven talks to advertise instead of 11, but publicising our third book: The Pells of Lewes – Pool, park, people, places, required a lot of work in the late summer/autumn, with highly successful results. Besides the regular PR outreach listed below, we also booked a double-page spread supplement in the May issue of Lewes News and two displays in the Tourist Information Centre’s window during the autumn.

Talk publicity: Using the channels below, talk audience numbers increased slightly on the Zoom platform, to just over 200 each time, possibly because they were free. The March lockdown sadly saw the closure of one of our best publicity outlets in Viva Lewes. The Sussex Express and Lewes News are now key for reaching non-members.

LHG promotional activities in 2020 included:

  • Using @leweshistory Facebook/Twitter accounts to promote our own and other local history events
  • Talk information disseminated to:
    • Sussex Express
    • Lewes News
    • Nine online what’s on pages: Lewes.co.uk, Freegle Community Events, LDC (VisitLewes.co.uk), ESCC Library (escis.org.uk), List.co.uk, WhereCanWeGo.com, SeahavenFM.com (a local radio station), TheLewesList (fortnightly events email) & Nextdoor.co.uk
    • Associated organisations e.g. Lewes Archaeology Group, Friends of Lewes
    • A4 posters in Tourist Information Centre, Library, Barbican, Bow Windows Bookshop & Nevill noticeboard. Also, the windows of members in all parts of the town and some nearby villages
    • Leaflets placed in locations around town e.g. TIC, All Saints
    • LHG website, event emailings & Bulletin

Book publicity: Promoting the Pells of Lewes was a team effort and thanks to one of the editors, Sarah Bayliss, the book was featured three times in David Arnold’s page in the Sussex Express. This coverage, plus a stand at the September Farmers’ Market and enthusiastic recommendations from Julian Bell and other readers, helped the first print run of 600 to sell out in under a month. At the time of writing, and lockdown permitting, we hope that the second edition (with minimal changes) of 350 will also sell out by Christmas. 

Madonna and Child, William Dyce, c.1830We wish you all a Happy Christmas & a Prosperous New Year

We wish all our readers a Happy Christmas, and a more ordinary year for 2021 than we have been blessed with in this particular, rather unexpected, year.

 

Madonna & Child by William Dyce, c.1830

©Tate Gallery, image T00618, creative commons licence CC-BY-NC-ND

 

 

 John Kay 

Contact details for Friends of the Lewes History Group promoting local historical events:

Sussex Archaeological Society
Lewes Priory Trust

Lewes Archaeological Group and go to ‘Lectures’
Friends of Lewes
Viva Lewes
The Arts Society: Uckfield & Lewes – meets 2nd Wed. Guests £7 per talk

Lewes History Group Facebook, Twitter

 

This entry was posted in Art & Architectural History, Biographical Literature, Economic History, Family History, History of Religions, Lewes, Local History, Political History, Transport History. Bookmark the permalink.